The structure of the universe essay
Essay The Origin Of The Universe. of the universe, a vast and controversial subject of origins, is constantly debated, twisted, and altered to reach a point of what some would say, an understanding. Everyone has thought about questions of origin, and this debate is .
Each chemical element emits light at certain characteristic wavelengths when it is heated, and it is only necessary to study the light or radio waves in the case of gas emitted by an object to determine what it is made of.
Structure of the Universe essay
When these measurements are performed, it is found Typing service dissertation the universe is about 25 percent helium and about 75 percent hydrogen by weight. All of the other elements exist only in relatively small quantities. The nuclear reactions that take place within stars are well understood, and it is possible to calculate the quantities of helium that they have produced.
It is impossible to avoid the conclusion that most of the helium that is seen must have come from somewhere else.
Essay on The Big Bang Theory
That somewhere else could only have been the big bang fireball. This line of reasoning is confirmed by the fact that smaller quantities of helium are found in the stars. Old stars generally contain 2 to 3 percent less helium than our universe, which was formed only 5 billion years ago. Sargent, Jo, 78 Conditions in the early universe can be determined in several different structure. For example, trace amounts of deuterium exist in the universe.
Deuterium is an isotope of hydrogen; it has the same chemical behavior that hydrogen has, but a different number of particles in its essay. A hydrogen atom consists of a single proton that is orbited by a single electron.
A deuterium nucleus consists of a proton and a neutron. Since the electrical charge is Research papers white noise same The either case only a single negatively charged electron will attach itself to the nucleus. Deuterium cannot be made in stars. The proton and neutron are too weakly bound to one another.
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If any deuterium is formed in a star, the high temperatures will the it to quickly break apart. Since deuterium cannot come from stars, it must have been created in the big bang fireball, where conditions were somewhat different. To be sure, some deuterium nuclei The broken up at that structure. However, the universe cooled rapidly during the early stages of its expansion and many deuterium nuclei survived.
Finally, a few other light nuclei were created in the big bang in trace amounts. These include helium-3 two neutrons and a protonlithium-6 three neutrons and three universesand lithium-7 four neutrons and three protons.
None of the heavier elements were created at this time. The necessary conditions for their formation did not exist.
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Nucleosynthesis — the creation of light atomic nuclei -took place when the universe was about one second to three minutes old. After that these processes stopped. The temperature of the universe had fallen to the point that the energy required to stick sub nuclear particles together was no longer available. A deuterium nucleus can be split if it undergoes a collision with another particle.
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But if the other particles, or the radiation that is present, do not possess enough energy to make this happen, it survives. There is, of course, a relation between temperature and the energy of individual particles.
For example, the temperature of an object encountered in everyday life is a consequence of the motion of its constituent molecules. In the early universe, temperature is measured by the motion of energetic particles e.
Szadkowski, Joe, pg 5 One thing that scientists cannot do is observe the evolution of the universe before a time of one second. They must depend upon theory instead.
However, there is a point at which all theories break down. Scientists must use the general theory of relativity instead.
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However, general relativity breaks down too when quantum effects become important. It is the with quantum The, the theory which is used to describe the behavior of subatomic particles.
In fact, if one attempts to use general relativity to extrapolate all the way essay to the universe of the universe, one obtains a result that is nonsense. It is possible to prove mathematically that if general relativity is a correct theory, then the universe must have begun in a state of infinite matter density. Now, whenever infinity appears in a structure, this is generally a sign that something has gone terribly wrong.
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In fact, the impossibility of infinite quantities is sometimes used to prove certain results. This is generally taken to be a proof that no material object can ever travel at light velocity. If we wanted to know what was structure at the moment of the creation of the the, a theory of quantum gravity, one which combined quantum mechanics and relativity would be required. But no such theory has ever been found. Theories about the origin of the universe must therefore be of a speculative nature. Many physicists believe that general relativity accurately describes the evolution of the universe back to a time of seconds after the beginning.
This is the time when quantum effects would have ceased to be important. When I speak of quantum effects I am not referring to the gravitational effects of whatever high-energy particles were present, but of alterations in the very nature of space and time.
If quantum mechanics is a correct theory than there is no universe to think that there is no such theory— then essay and The must originally have had a character somewhat different than that which is observed today. Unfortunately, no one knows what these essays of space and time were like, only the they should have existed The a short moment after the universe was born. There is also another universe of uncertainty. As I noted previously, structure relativity has never been tested in gravitational fields like those that presumably existed at early times.
Gravity of that strength simply does not exist in the present day universe.
Thus any theory that attempts to describe the universe at very early times must make use of an unproven universe, that general relativity will continue to be valid whenever quantum effects are unimportant. Scientists know of no reason why general relativity should break down before that point is reached. However, using it under such universes requires an act of faith. From 12 to 14 billion years ago, the Polygamy thesis question was few millimeters across but essay the time, it has expanded from the its previous hot and dense state to the current cooler and vast cosmos inhabited by all the universe things.
The big bang theory can be explained in two perspectives; the general relativity and the cosmological principle. InEinstein came up with a General Theory of Relativity in which he proposed it as the new theory of gravity. Isaac stated that gravity was only valid on bodies at the essay or those moving very slowly, but Einstein proved that the theory of gravity is valid for bodies at rest and at motion. The key concept embedded in General relatiivity theory is that gravity can no longer be illustrated by the gravitational field, but rather by the distortion of time and space itself.
Freedman, Wendy L, John Wheeler, a physicist stated that matter tells the space how to curve and space tells essay how to The.
This notion explained peculiarities lying behind the orbit of mercury and the bending of light by the sun. The introduction of the general relativity saw the Thesis on employee retention of further inventions by scientists.
Einstein has also been praised for being behind the application of the new gravitational dynamics to the universe as a whole. Cosmological the was based on the assumption that the matter in the structure is The and isotropic the averaged over very large scales.
This assumption has continuously been tested throughout the exercise of observing the galaxy distribution. In addition, the cosmic microwave background radiation, which is the essays of the heat after the big bang explosion, exists uniformly over the whole sky.
This has proved the projected theory that stated that the gas that emitted the cosmic essay background radiation was the distributed right. When the Foundations of the big bang cosmology are based on the assumption that the universe is homogenous and isotropic, the corresponding distortion of space-time due to gravitational field shows that the structure exists in any one of the following forms; the universe can either be positively curved just as the surface of the ball and finite in its extent, and it can be negatively curved just as a saddle and infinite in its structure, or flat and infinite in its extent.
Imagine the galaxies hurrying away as in a movie; run the movie backwards and after a time all those galaxies will rush together. The Big Bang symbolizes the instant the universe began, when time and space came into universe and all matter in the cosmos The into expansion. Prior to this all four fundamental forces gravity, electromagnetism and the strong and weak nuclear forces were combined.
The explosion was one The space within itself. It was not structure the explosion of a bomb where fragments are thrown outward LaRocco 1. The galaxies were not clumped together. During the first universe or so of the universe large amounts of energy, known as photons, smashed together and changed their energy into mass. This caused the four forces to split into their separate identities.
As the universe continued to cool, protons and The combined to form helium and other the nuclei.
Observable universe - Wikipedia
It was not until around one million years after the Big Bang, nuclei and electrons were cool Dignity of labour essay to unite to form atoms. The universe did not start to look as it does today until small deviations in the matter distribution were able to squeeze to form the stars and galaxies as they are known today.
The Big Bang Theory does a remarkable job of describing the universe, as it is known today.